A well-preserved mammoth that may have been killed by Ice Age humans has been found in the permafrost of northern Siberia.
Prof Alexei Tikhonov of the Zoology Institute in St Petersburg announced the finding of the mammoth, which was excavated from the Siberian permafrost in late September near the Sopochnaya Karga cape, 2,200 miles (3,500km) north-east of Moscow.
The 16-year-old mammoth has been named Jenya, after the 11-year-old Russian boy who found the animal’s limbs sticking out of the frozen mud. The mammoth was two metres (6ft 6in) tall and weighed 500kg (1,100lb). “He was pretty small for his age,” Tikhonov said.
But what killed Jenya was not his size but a missing left tusk that made him unfit for fights with other mammoths or human hunters who were settling the Siberian marshes and swamps some 20,000-30,000 years ago, Tikhonov said.
The splits on Jenya’s remaining tusk show a “possible human touch”, he added.
The examination of Jenya’s body has already proved that the massive humps on mammoths seen on Ice Age cave paintings from Spain and France were not extended bones but huge chunks of fat that helped them survive the long, cold winters, Tikhonov said.
Jenya’s hump was relatively small, which means he died during a short Arctic summer, he said.
Up to 4 metres in height and 10 tonnes in weight, mammoths inhabited huge areas between Great Britain and north America and were driven to extinction by humans and the changing climate.
Woolly mammoths are thought to have died out around 10,000 years ago, although scientists think small groups of them lived longer in Alaska and on Russia‘s Wrangel Island off the Siberian coast.
Their bodies have mostly been found in the Siberian permafrost. Siberian cultural myths paint them as primordial creatures who moved underground and helped to create the Earth.
Most of the well-preserved mammoths are calves. Jenya’s carcass is the best-preserved one since the 1901 discovery of a giant mammoth near the Beryozovka river in Russia’s north-eastern Yakutia region, Tikhonov said.
Unfortunately, its DNA has been damaged by low temperatures and is “hardly” suitable for possible cloning, he said.
However, an earlier mammoth discovery might be able to help recreate the Ice Age elephant.
Russia’s North-Eastern Federal University said in early September that an international team of researchers had discovered mammoth hair, soft tissues and bone marrow some 100 metres underground during a summer expedition in Yakutia.
Scientists have already deciphered much of the genetic code of the woolly mammoth from balls of mammoth hair found frozen in the Siberian permafrost. Some believe it would be possible to recreate the prehistoric animal if living cells are found in the permafrost.
Anyone who succeeds in recreating an extinct animal could claim a “Jurassic Park prize”, a concept being developed by the X Prize Foundation that awarded a 2004 prize for the first private spacecraft. (The Guardian).